The main focus of the present review is on the effects of direct targeting of ROS-producing enzymes, the bolstering of antioxidant defences and mechanisms to improve nitric oxide availability. Current evidence suggests that a more nuanced approach to antioxidant therapy is more likely to yield positive reductions in end-organ injury, with considerations required for the types of ROS/RNS involved, the timing and dosage of antioxidant therapy, and the selective targeting of cell populations. This is likely to influence future strategies to lessen the burden of diabetic complications such as diabetes-associated atherosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy.
Reference: Marco ED, Jha JC, Sharma A, Wilkinson-Berka JL, Jandeleit-Dahm KA, de Haan JB. Are reactive oxygen species still the basis for diabetic complications? Clin Sci (Lond). 2015 Jul;129(2):199-216. doi: 10.1042/CS20150093.